Thursday, August 27, 2020
Forestalling Falls in the Elderly Natalie StJohn University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville As human services turns out to be increasingly complex and better, different concerns are beginning to surface. Such interests that began as insignificant irritations are presently turning into the point of convergence of inclusion that means to address and improve the government assistance of people. One such clinical concern is the wonder of falls, particularly with the more seasoned populace. We will compose a custom paper test on Forestalling Falls in the Elderly or on the other hand any comparative point just for you Request Now Falling in old people is a noteworthy, yet under-perceived and thought little of general wellbeing concern (Woolcott et al. , 2009). About 30% of individuals more than 65 years of age and living in their particular networks fall every year, with such figures considerably higher in wellbeing foundations and about a fifth of such occurrences requires clinical consideration (Gillespie, Gillespie, Robertson, Lamb, Cumming, Rowe, 2009). In a one year follow-up investigation of people matured 75 years or more living in the network, around 33% revealed at any rate one episode of fall (Tinetti, Speechley, Ginter, 1988), with a higher yearly fall danger of up to half, happened in the most seasoned populace or with the people living in nursing homes, with the results of wounds and cracks due to falls (like mortality, hospitalization, inability and regulation) ascent similarly as with the age (Berdot et al. , 2009). The assessed costs related with falls and fall-related complexities are at billions of dollars around the world (Scuffham, Chaplin, Legood, 2003; Lewin Group, 2000; Smartrisk Foundation, 2009). Thus, research in regards to the variables why senior individuals fall turns into even more important (Woolcott et al. , 2009). There are a few reasons why individuals fall. Fall chance is multifactoral in nature, with hazard factors being inherent and extraneous (Graafmans et al. , 1996). The most widely recognized reasons are uncontrolled hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, and use or improper utilization of specific meds (Gangavati et al. 2011); Woolcott et al. , 2009; Berdot et al. , 2009). Concerning hypertension and systolic orthostatic hypertension, more established people experiencing such conditions are at more serious hazard for falls inside a year (Gangavatti et al. , 2011). The investigation likewise noticed that more seasoned patients with their hypertension controlled have no impact concerning falls (Gangavatti et al. , 2011). The more seasoned populaces with an expansion utilization of antidepressants, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, and narcotics have a bigger and increment odds of falls with older people (Woolcott et al. 2009). This checked increment is generally because of the durable impacts of benzodiazepines just as improper psychotropics, and since these drugs have anticholinergic properties (Berdot et al. , 2009). There are a few different ways to relieve, reduce, or even forestall the odds of the senior populace from falling. Intercessions with multidisciplinary properties are demonstrated powerful in limiting fall occurrences, just as muscle fortifying parity retraining recommended at home and helped by a prepared wellbeing proficient (Gillespie et al. 2009). Kendo is additionally another powerful elective mediation for moderating falls (Gillespie et al. , 2009). For those with a background marked by falling, home danger evaluation and adjustment by a social insurance expert could likewise limit odds of falls (Gillespie et al. , 2009). Cardiovascular pacing for people with high danger of falls due to cardio-inhibitory carotid sinus touchiness additionally has a high possibility of being valuable, just like the withdrawal of psychotropic meds (Gillespie et al. , 2009). Studies have likewise indicated that independently custom fitted mediations conveyed by social insurance experts are more powerful than standard or gathering conveyed programs (Gillespie et al. , 2009). Falls is a profoundly preventable, yet still exceptionally predominant reason for injury and even mortality with the older. The previously mentioned intercessions could help in limiting its adverse impacts. Reference: Berdot, S. , Bertrand, M. , Dartigues, J. F. , Fourrier, A. , Tavernier, B. , Ritchie, K. , Alperovitch, A. , (2009). Wrong Medication Use and Risk of Falls-A Prospective Study in a Large Community-Dwelling Elderly Cohort. BMC Geriatrics, 9(30). doi:10. 1186/1471-2318-9-30. Lewin Group (2000). Assessed investment funds from falls forestalled by focused home alterations. Washington, DC: AARP Public Policy Institute. Gangavati, A. , Hajjar, I. , Quach, L. , Jones, R. , Kiely, D. , Gagnon, P. , Lipsitz, L. (2011). Hypertension, Orthostatic Hypotension, and the Risk of Falls in a Community-Dwelling Elderly Population: The Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston Study. Diary of American Geriatric Society, 59(3), 383-389. doi:Ã¢ Ã¢ 10. 1111/j. 1532-5415. 2011. 03317. x Gillespie, L. D. , Gillespie, W. J. , Robertson, M. C. , Lamb, S. E. , Cumming, R. G. , Rowe, B. H. (2009). Mediations for forestalling falls in older individuals. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4). DOI:Ã 10. 1002/14651858. CD000340. Graafmans,Ã WC. , Ooms,Ã M. E. , Hofstee, H. M. , Bezemer,Ã P. D. , Bouter,Ã L. M. , Lips, P. (1996). Falls in the older: a planned investigation of hazard factors and hazard profiles. American Journal of Epidemiology, 143(11), 1129-Ã 1136. Scuffham P. , Chaplin,Ã S. , Legood,Ã R. (2003). Occurrence and expenses of unexpected falls in more seasoned individuals in the United Kingdom. Diary of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57(9) 740-Ã 744. Smartrisk Foundation. 2009). The Economic Burden of Unintentional Injury in Canada. Smartrisk Foundation Website. Recovered from http://www. smartrisk. ca/analysts/economic_burden_studies/canada. html. Gotten to October 20, 2012. Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF, (1988). Hazard Factors for Falls among Elderly Persons Living in the Community. New England Journal of Medicine,Ã¢ 319,1701-1707. Woolcot, J. , Richardson, K. , Wiens, M. , Patel, B. , Marin, J. , Khan, K. , Marra, C. (2009). Meta-investigation of the effect of 9 Medication Classes on Falls in Elderly Persons. Documents of Internal Medicine, 169(21), 1952-1960. doi:10. 1001/archinternmed. 2009. 357. The most effective method to refer to Preventing Falls in the Elderly, Essay models
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Legend Analysis Essay There used to be a goddess with a supernatural force that fulfilled everybody; as long as she was cheerful they were upbeat. That goddessÃ¢â¬â¢ name was Ella. Ella has a twin sibling named Evan. Evan has the intensity of brain control. Ella lived high in the sky on mists among the other god. Ella and different divine beings got along very well particularly when she was feeling acceptable. In the wake of living in the mists for quite a while all the divine beings became weary of carrying out standard things for themselves. They chose to plan something significant for make something. They all combined in a major hover around the biggest cloud and spun around 300 and-sixty-five times. As they all stopped, they all looked off the edge of EvanÃ¢â¬â¢s humongous cloud they saw an immense circle. The divine beings got together and chose to call this monstrous circle Earth. The divine beings before long discovered that they could head out to Earth and that life could make due on Earth by the god James who had the ability to make life human and creature. When word broke that life had the option to get by on Earth they divine beings requested that James make them snakes. James approved of this as long as different divine beings let these snakes have some extra time too. After James said indeed, pretty much every god had snakes with the exception of Ella. Ella has been glad for some time, until one day Gus the divine force of wind blew her cloud close to the sun. Ella requested Gus blow her cloud back, Gus tragically couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t. When Ella got to her cloud she understood her feet were incredibly hot in light of the fact that the ground of the cloud was hot. Ella needed a shoe that would not back her off, a shoe that was light and magical simply like her. Ella before long turned out to be extremely pitiful in light of the fact that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t realize how to make shoes. After Ella got dismal, so did the various divine beings. When James got tragic he offered her few snakes. Ella got excessively energized; she acknowledged the snakes from James. James had instructed Ella a stunt to get snakes to the mists, which he educated to all the divine beings. James to Ella to snap, when she did she was at her home on her cloud; she was dazzled. When Ella and the snakes began strolling their feet started consuming, she disclosed to them that copying sensation was what she felt. Ella snapped her fingers once more; both her and her snakes were back on Earth. The majority of the snakes made shoes of wood. They cut utilizing devices Shiloh the goddess of instruments had given them, with their hands. Ella didn't need wooden shoes that were a long way from what she needed; she looked to her last snake that had an extremely solid leaf in his grasp. Ella asked this man what he was doing with a leaf, he answered basically Ã¢â¬Å"making you a shoe.Ã¢â¬ Ella solicited Ã¢â¬Å"out from a measly little leaf?Ã¢â¬ The man was savvy he exchanged with a snake of Veronica the goddess of solidarity and force which can acquire in creatures or plants. The man revealed to Ella that the Ã¢â¬Å"measly little leafÃ¢â¬ was solid as a result of Veronica. Additionally the man revealed to Ella that the leaf could be utilized as the base piece of the shoe. Ella took the leaf from the elderly person and put it on her foot she understood that there was nothing holding that base piece of the shoe or leaf to her foot, so she told the snake. The snake had a thought. He revealed to Ella that in the event that they jab three openings in the leaf like a triangle, one at the best two on the sides, utilizing stems of blossoms too. Ella thought this thought was splendid. Ella knew she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t do that without assistance from Veronica once more. So Veronica and Ella meet up and pair up as a group. Veronica made solid stems of blossoms by moving hopping the higher and quicker she bounced, the more grounded and taller the plant would be. At long last Veronica gave the stems to the snake and he put the m in the gaps and tied bunches toward the finish of each gap. To ensure the bunches were as close as they could be they needed to combine up with another god Zack lord of insight and quality. Zack tied the bunches so close that they couldn't be slackened. Just to ensure that the bunches would not come unraveled and would remain always the snake recommended a coordinated effort with Fresh. New was the divine force of fire. In the wake of hearing what the snake had recommended just to err on the side of caution Ella, concurred with this coordinated effort. Ella truly didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to have Fresh included on the grounds that awful things will in general happen when he is near. When Ella first knew about the words come out of the snakes mouth she tossed the shoe. While noticeable all around the shoe did a flip and it hit a tree made a major WHACK, and had an exceptionally boisterous FLOP. Ella enjoyed that sound, she needed to hear it again so she tossed shoe once more. At long last Fresh came, to fix the bunches with fire. He scoured his thumb and center finger together and a flash of fire showed up. When the sparkle showed up he put the fire on the bunches and afterward snapped to cause the fire to leave. When Ella saw the completed item she was flabbergasted. She gave the shoe a shot it had a tie like an angular shape. She recollected when she tossed the shoe how it flipped and afterward made a boi sterous FLOP. She named these shoes flip-flops.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Getting the Best Resource For Your APA ReassessmentThe APA Reassessment Paper Exam is often a very tough exam and it can be tough to know how to prepare for it. With so many choices available it can make it difficult to choose the right one for you. There are many different types of study materials available and when researching these you will find that they can differ greatly in their quality and price.A good thing about finding study materials is that you can find most of the ones you need for free. This means you don't have to pay a large amount of money and you can use these for the most part to get you prepared for the re-assessment. You should take advantage of this and make sure you are getting the best quality possible.A good resource for this is probably the APA site which will offer different types of study materials for the APA Reassessment Paper. It can also give you the opportunity to get various tips and instructions on what to do and what not to do. There are some grea t resources that you can take advantage of.When you start to go online, it is important that you have a general idea of what you are looking for so you can find exactly what you need. You will find a lot of sources and you will also find a lot of negative information. So, it is good to know how to filter out this information and make sure you are getting the information you need.You will find that there are a number of different types of study material. Some are directly on the APA site, others you can get on your own. The nice thing about getting all this at once is that you can use all the resources for one exam.The problem with getting all the different resources can be that it can be hard to narrow down which one is the best for you. Some people will spend a long time trying to decide on the best resource and others will end up just throwing the study materials away. That is never a good thing.You should have a clear idea of what you want your study material to accomplish. If yo u only have one or two items that are of little value, then you can just toss them away. On the other hand, if you have a large number of items that have no value, then you will need to spend some time reviewing them to see which ones you feel you can live without.The main types of resources for the APA Reassessment Paper include the actual practice test and the practice exam. Both are great and both will allow you to get some valuable practice. The real test comes after you are able to pass the actual exam. Once you have the skills and techniques that you need to pass the exam, you can be confident that you will be taking the exam in no time at all.
Monday, May 25, 2020
Our solar system consists of 8 planets and three dwarf planets. Of those planets, only Earth has shown signs of life. Although Venus has the same mass, density, and size as Earth, it does not show those same signs of life. Instead, VenusÃ¢â¬â¢s drastically different atmosphere makes it unable to sustain life in the same manner as Earth. By delving into these differences, one can come to understanding of what makes life impossible, and how life would have to evolve in order to be able to sustain itself on the planet, Venus. To comprehend VenusÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to hold life, we must understand what life needs on Earth to sustain itself. On Earth, all life go through functions to convert certain reagents into energy. There are two types of life onÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦If a cell lives in an extreme temperature which it usually does not reside in, it will be unable to function; thus, it will die. If a cell comes into contact with a harmful element or compound that it cannot withstand, such as an obligate anaerobic organism coming into contact with oxygen, it will cease to function; thus, die. Earth has bodies of water and ozone, as well as a fast rotational period. These stop the surface of the planet from overheating, allowing cells to be able to live in normal temperatures. The cells have also created mechanisms that are able to combat the harmful compounds within the atmosphere, or have relocated themselves to below the water to avoid these compounds. VenusÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere is 90 times more dense, consisting of 96.5% CO2, 3% Nitrogen, and .5% of other elements. This means the oxygen concentration is very low. In order for aerobic life to be supported, there must be a sufficient amount of oxygen contained within the atmosphere so that cellular respiration can be undergone. Comparing EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s oxygen concentration to VenusÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration, Earth has around 42 times more oxygen in its atmosphere than Venus. This makes aerobic life on Venus implausible. However, what about anaerobic life. Fermentation does not use oxygen; thus, this is a viable option within this atmosphere. The only problem is that, as a byproduct, fermentation produces CH3COCOOÃ¢Ëâ which breaks down into CO2. This would add more Co2 into
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Why are the people of the World State discouraged from having close relationships and families? In the Brave New World, by Aldous Huxley, Huxley creates a world where it can be seen as both a utopic and a dystopic state. The story is placed in the World State, where the government controls the majority of the planets population. The government, controlled by ten World Controllers, mass produces people in tubes into five different castes. At the top the social class, there are the Alphas, who are intellectually superior and have individual traits. Next are the Betas, who are moderately intelligent; therefore, their positions require less thinking. After the Betas come the Gammas; they are semi-skilled workers and experts at repetitive tasks. After the Gammas come the Deltas; they are unskilled workers that lack individuality and tend to common jobs. The lowest group in the social class are the Epsilons; they have undesirable jobs with no intelligence and have a lack of individuality. Mustapha Mond, the World Controller of Western Europe, controls his people through the usage of soma, a drug to escape sadness, embarrassment, and discomfort, hypnopaedia, a sleep-learning method, and the conditioning of babies with electrical shocks soon after their birth. While the government allows and advocates open sex, they refuse people from forming a close relationship with one partner. Emotions are portrayed to show weakness. The idea of forming relationships and families in the WorldShow MoreRelatedA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley668 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesIn Brave New World, there are similarities that have a deeper meaning that we can understand. There are personal effects in Aldous Huxley life that contribute to what he has written in the book. Aldous Huxley throughout his life have seen, done, and events have happened to him, just like all of us, but he has expressed it in his book. So when Aldous wrote the he had so many ideas. I have read the book; itÃ¢â¬â¢s notRead MoreBrave New World by Aldous Huxley811 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Brave New World is based around characters who gave up the right of freedom for happiness; characters who ignored the truth so that they could live in a utopian civilization. The deceiving happiness was a constant reminder throughout the book. Almost every character in Brave New World did whatever they could to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. In this society, happiness is not compatible with the truth because the World State believes that happiness was at the expense of theRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Brave New Feminist The novel Brave New World written by Aldous Huxley in 1932 is known for its social satire, utopian values, and unusual standpoints on stereotypical gender roles. In this time where futuristic technology has completely taken over, and men and women are given the same opportunities for everything, Ã¢â¬Å"the genders appear equal within the social order; both men and women work at the same jobs, have equal choice in sexual partners, and participate in the same leisure pursuitsÃ¢â¬ (MarchRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley664 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesfor the fact being in the future and in the past time has changed and many differences were made. In his Dystopian Society Huxley portrays masses of niches where the government produces clones for specific reasons. Huxley decides throughout Brave New World that cloning humans is unethical. He then becomes in contact with the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful Alphas and Betas clones. Huxley suggest in BNW that lower class groups in clo ning humans to act like servants to terrorize them into working hard conditionsRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages In the world of sex, drugs, and baby cloning you are going to be in many situations where you feel like the world we live in should be different. In the story Brave New World, they had sex with multiple partners along with a very bad use of drugs. It is weird that Aldous Huxley wrote this book in 1931 about the world he was living in during that time and how it is similar to the world we live in today. Nowadays, drugs are still being used and people are still engaging in sexual encounters withRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley968 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia in Brave New World foreshadowed and illuminated the complications within modern day society. Upon its release, the narrative became widely banned all over the United States due to the unorthodox thoughts and actions of multiple characters in it. Early readers, as well as modern day audiences, feared and rejected the ideals that Huxley incorporated into his perfect society; however, our society today is heading towards the dark paths the older generations desired to avoid. Read MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe novel Brave New World, Aldous Huxley tells of a society where everyone is the same but, compared to t odayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, everything is different. Huxley tells of a world where everything that happens or takes place is because of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own desire and nothing more. The hero in the novel, a Ã¢â¬Å"savageÃ¢â¬ named John, is HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s main focal point. It is through his eyes and mind that the reader sees whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on. Now when I read this novel, I began to think, Ã¢â¬Å"Could this perfect, conformed world actuallyRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesimperfect world and is usually only a hopeful dream. These types of worlds can greatly be described in detail through the world of science fiction. Aldous Huxley was an English writer who lived during a time when war and chaos were engulfing the world. His works reflect his view and thoughts on a dystopia, which is a false utopia, and describes what could occur in possible governments of the world. The ability to understand and dive into the thoughts of the author is what make s world literatureRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley614 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesthem truly happy. What if someone were to tell you that what you thought was true happiness was all an illusion. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley people in the world state are conditioned and drugged up by soma to not experience true happiness. In a world that is perfect, human beings do not have to depend on drugs to keep our world in balance. In a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley there is always a perfect drug called soma that keeps everyone happy, which they have based their society on. ThisRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWelcome to a world were Ã¢â¬Å"BraveÃ¢â¬ is not just a word; It has a true meaning. This is a story were everything as you know it, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be right and will completely change your way of thinking. When this story was written, life was very harsh for many peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦.Mostly for the author who wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ During this time (1930s) they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have much sexual content Living The Future Of The Past In The PresentÃ¢â¬ ¦.. In the air; But Aldous made a future full of sex for them and we are the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Throughout history, the term Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial PresidencyÃ¢â¬ has been used in the 1960s to portray the United States presidents and their utilities. Ã¢â¬Å"Imperial PresidencyÃ¢â¬ is grounded on many citations, observations that are devised by many historians. A numerous number of presidents follow the footsteps of presidents before them, in order to live in the shadow, they leave behind. Residing by the thought of, given that the president achieved his successes during his office, they try to repeat the same idea in order for the same successful outcome. However, there is a high chance for bad outcomes to occur, making it discreditable for the president in the current office. Historian Arthur Schlesinger JrÃ¢â¬â¢s use of Ã¢â¬Å"imperialÃ¢â¬ president is aimed to convey a president with noble personality with his constant accumulation of power in his presidency. The executive power given to the president, sanctions him to be totalitarian and may create a war-like decision t hat affects the country as a whole. The government holds a crucial status to its citizens, executive branch specifically, is overlooked to symbolize leadership. Nowadays, the presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s office is believed to exemplify the values of the American people. There are certain powers allocated to the president by the United States Constitution, however; the responsibility and vacancy of the President tend to evolve from one president to the next. Characteristics of presidents and their effect on political decisions has beneficial aspectsShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 PagesTwentieth-Century World Bonnie G. Smith 83 4 The Gendering of Human Rights in the International Systems of Law in the Twentieth Century Ã¢â¬ ¢ Jean H. Quataert 116 5 The Impact of the Two World Wars in a Century of Violence Ã¢â¬ ¢ John H. Morrow Jr. 161 6 Locating the United States in Twentieth-Century World History Ã¢â¬ ¢ Carl J. Guarneri 213 7 The Technopolitics of Cold War: Toward a Transregional Perspective Ã¢â¬ ¢ Gabrielle Hecht and Paul N. Edwards 271 8 A Century of Environmental
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Water has been used to fight fires throughout history in all types of environments, applications and methods. This is mainly because water in considered inert and has the scientific properties to make it a great fire suppressor (Liu Kin, 1999). Water has a high heat capacity, requires a large amount of energy to vaporize, can absorb large amounts of heat, and expands when it evaporates diluting the surrounding fuel and oxygen sources (Liu Kin, 1999). Water is also readily accessible in most parts of the world, environmentally friendly, and cheaper to uses than any other methods of fire suppression. This is why it continues to be the most sought after fire extinguishing agent. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems or NFPA750 defines water mist as a water spray for which the Dv0.99 [99%], for the flow-weighted cumulative volumetric distribution of water droplets is less than 1000 um within the nozzle operating pressure (NFPA, 2015, Definitions, para. 3. 3.22). The European Committee for Standardization defines water mist in its CEN/TS14972 as a water spray for which the 90% of the total volume of liquid (Dv0.90) is distributed in droplets with a diameter smaller than 1000 microns at the minimum design operating pressure of the water mist nozzle (VID, n.d.). These definitions are a little confusing but are attributed to an earlier time when droplet size was the only consideration for performance (VID, n. d.). The operation of misting systems is relatively simple. Pressure pushes water through a nozzle or series of nozzles to create a cool, fog-like mist. This mist is suspended in the air due to its small droplet size and is transported throughout the area by turbulent air. The mist performs much a like a gas in the sense it can move around objects and get into crevices and ventilation systems. Surface wetting is still the primary method of fire suppression and helps keep the fire from spreading but it is not a complete saturation like traditional sprinkler systems (Stanwick, 2003). This wetting is assisted by cooling of the surrounding areas, surrounding air, fire, and fuel source (Stanwick, 2003). Another benefit of water misting is the scrubbing effect. In simple terms, smoke is made of liquid and solid particles created through the combustion of the fuel source (Stanwick, 2003). These small particles stick to the water droplets cleaning the air from harmful particles (Stanwick, 2003). This can be an important factor in the ability of this technology to save lives. According to the NFPA, prior to 1999 smoke inhalation deaths outnumbered burn deaths three to one (Hall, 2011). After 1999, there is a two to one ratio for smoke inhalation versus burn deaths (Hall, 2011). Today there are a number of factors that affect water mist performance. As previously mentioned, the surface area of the spray being used has a direct effect on how it reacts with the fire (Hambling, 2001). A normal sprinkler droplet size of one millimeter has a water surface area of two square meters (Hambling, 2001). A mist spray of one-tenth a millimeter across can have a surface area of more than two hundred square meters (Hambling, 2001). To put this into perspective, in one test a fire temperature was decreased approximately five hundred degrees centigrade and extinguished in two seconds using a mist (Hambling, 2001). That is extremely efficient fire fighting and explains why previously droplet size was considered so important. Smaller droplets also have a much longer hang time in the air (Liu Kin, 1999). This can help them be carried to small crevices and other areas inaccessible by larger droplets (Liu Kin, 1999).Spray flux density is another factor that affects water mist. Spray flux density is the amount of water spray in a unit volume or unit area (Liu Kin, 1999). The spray flux density must be increased enough to remove heat from the fire, cooling it below the ignition point (Liu Kin, 1999). The more it increases the less effect it will have on oxygen in the area. This is why certain heads with spray patters are tested first prior to use. The correct equilibrium must be met for the situation and fuel to optimize the effects and the spray mist (Liu Kin, 1999). The mist must reach the fire to be effective and a fire that creates more heat than the cooling power of the mist will not be extinguished (Liu Kin, 1999). This can further be affected by spray momentum, spray angle, shielding of the source, size of the fire, airflow, size of the area and shape of the area (Liu Kin, 1999). The last factor affecting water mist performance is the spray momentum (Liu Kin, 1999). This is the spray velocity and its direction in reference to the fire (Liu Kin, 1999). This has a direct impact on the droplets ability to penetrate the fire and contact the fuel source (Liu Kin, 1999). The spray momentum produces air turbulence which helps circulate the water droplets (Liu Kin, 1999). This circulation helps reduce the amount of oxygen and fuel vapor which in turn helps extinguish the fire (Liu Kin, 1999). The factors that affect spray momentum are droplet size, droplet velocity, pressure, angle, nozzle spacing, airflow, area size, and area shape (Liu Kin, 1999). The history of misting systems can be traced back to around 1880 and the F.E. Myers company (Lakkonen, 2008). Their creation of the back-bag system included a lance utilizing small water droplets to fight forest fires (Lakkonen, 2008). The biggest drawback of the time was lack of pressure and it wouldnt be until the 1900s that further advancement would be made in this area (Lakkonen, 2008). As better sealing materials were improved and created, the ability to increase pressure advanced and by the 1930s there were multiple companies offering systems that utilized misting technology in their products (Lakkonen, 2008). They were promoted on the benefits of cooling effect, oxygen displacement and low water damages with use (Lakkonen, 2008). One such company marketed a multiple orifice nozzle called a water dust nozzle (Lakkonen, 2008). In the 1940s another company, Factory Mutual, carried out a series of tests with small droplet nozzles and their effectiveness on gasoline fires (Lakkonen, 2008). The results indicated that the performance was comparable to conventional sprinkler systems except flow rates were much lower (Lakkonen, 2008). During this period, fire fighting techniques with water mist were established and the USA and Europe adopted water mist techniques as a manual fire fighting strategy (Lakkonen, 2008). The effectiveness of misting during the period was well recognized but it was still not utilized for fixed applications (Lakkonen, 2008). This was mainly due to the lack of water pressure in the systems that supplied water if any where yet available (Lakkonen, 2008). For the next twenty years there was a period of independent research but no systematic trials (Lakkonen, 2008). The creation and investigation into gases and powder as a fire suppression agent became the mainstream focus (Lakkonen, 2008). These systems were integrated into or along with the conventional sprinkler systems (Lakkonen, 2008). Misting was only considered effective and used in a select portion of the industry, manual fire fighting (Lakkonen, 2008). Around 1970 there were breakthroughs with supporting technologies such as hydraulics, which helped increase the working pressure of the manual firefighting systems (Lakkonen, 2008). This helped create several research groups that were researching misting technologies in different parts of the world (Lakkonen, 2008). By 1980 there was some misting products installed in a number of industrial and public buildings such as the Leipzig Bowling center in Germany (Lakkonen, 2008). The biggest breakthroughs were from Sweden where researches developed new tactic for fighting fires (Lakkonen, 2008). Krister Giselsson and his partner Mats Rosander termed their new tactic offensive fire fighting (Lakkonen, 2008). This new tactic applied misting sprays to indoor fires in short bursts (Lakkonen, 2008). This helped to cool the combustion gases without large amounts of thermal imbalance and without large amounts of scalding hot steam (Lakkonen, 2008). The creators then took the information they collected from the offensive fire fighting and began creating one of the first fixed water misting systems (Lakkonen, 2008). They would co-operate with the company Electrolux Euroclean (Lakkonen, 2008). Electrolux Euroclean was in the business of industrial cleaning equipment and was inspired to join fire misting when their equipment was accidently used to put out an oil fire (Lakkonen, 2008). Electrolux Euroclean would carry out a number of tests at the Swedish research institute proving the performance of their product and to give baseline scientific references where previously there were none (Lakkonen, 2008). This unusual team organized several demonstrations and fire tests between 1981 and 1983 providing an increase in the general knowledge of misting in Sweden and surrounding areas (Lakkonen, 2008). In the 1980s the Montreal protocol was signed being finalized in 1987 (USDOS, n.d.). This global initiative protected the atmosphere by stopping the production and use of ozone depleting substances most notably chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons (USDOS, n.d. ). Halon was widely used at this time as a fire suppression agent and this started the search for viable alternatives (USDOS, n.d.). The Significant New Alternative program (SNAP) was started by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency helped develop a class of clean agents and renewed interest and funding for research in water misting systems (USDOS, n. d.). Another incident in 1990 would also help water mist technology. The ferry boat Scandinavian Star had a fire break out on the morning of April 7th 1990 (Scandinavian Star, n.d.). The cause of the fire is suspected to be arson but the loss of 159 people is what brought negative publicity on the marine industry (Scandinavian Star, n. d.). Experts franticly searched for fire suppression methods that did not have the weight, large piping requirements, or high water requirements of standard systems to be installed into ships (Lakkonen, 2008). This event also leads to the successful fire demonstrations in Balsta Sweden on 20 June, 1990 (Lakkonen, 2008). These demonstrations were attended by shipping companies, insurance companies, fire and rescue services, and other marine industry companies (Lakkonen, 2008). It is considered a major turning point for water misting systems and the first large marine installations are realized in 1992 onboard Motor Ship Danica, Motor Ship Festival, and Motor Ship Karneval (Lakkonen, 2008). The modern age of water mist technology had begun and was further supported by the International Maritime Industry (IMO) (Lakkonen, 2008). The IMO had multiple resolutions in the mid 1990s that would increase the support and use for this technology aboard ships (Lakkonen, 2008). These resolutions would require the latest safety technology and require features incorporated similar to that of a hotel or building (Wilmot, 2016). The National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) would create a technical committee on Water Mist development and release the first standard, NFPA750 Water Mist Fire Protection, in 1993 (Lakkonen, 2008). In 1998 the International Water Mist Association (IWMA) was formed with five corporate members (Lakkonen, 2008). Water misting systems have become even more popular through recent years and have been further investigated by all branches of the military (Lakkonen, 2008). The IWMA has swelled to over fifty corporate members and now holds an annual conference that supports the misting industry (Lakkonen, 2008). This old technology has had resurgence due to continued advancements and the events previous ly discussed. Misting is now common in a number of industries and is continuing to increase in popularity. Today water misting technology is marketed with advantages such as: immediate activation, high efficiency, minimized damage, environmentally friendly, and non toxic (ORR, n.d.). One of the most recent advances in misting technology is the PyroLance. The PyroLance is a portable, high pressure, fire fighting system utilizing misting technology (Schroeder, 2011). It consists of a high pressure lance, a high powered pumping unit and the hoses to connecting the two (Schroeder, 2011). It comes in three different models that can be operated by gas, diesel or power take-off and has a variety of options including: wireless controllers, wireless repeaters, upgraded hoses, extending hoses, mounting systems, water tanks, foam tanks, and abrasive material (Schroeder, 2011). Traditionally firefighters enter a structure to actually engage the fire (Roe, n.d.). This can risk the lives of those trapped inside and the firefighters by introducing more oxygen to the fire (Roe, n.d.). The situation can then escalate becoming more serious through flashovers, back drafts or an explosive type environment (Roe, n.d.). This product is unique because it changes traditional thinking on how to fight fires and can be used in situations that are difficult for fire fighter such as smoldering material between walls or structure panels. The PyroLance is held by the firefighter against the exterior wall or structure of the target and initiates the system (Schroeder, 2011). This activates the high pressure water stream mixed with aggregate which bores a 3mm hole through the target (Schroeder, 2011). The firefighter can then switch the aggregate off and initiate the high pressure water system (Schroeder, 2011). This provides a misting spray to the interior of the targeted location with water, foam, or combination of the two, cooling the targeted area and associated fire (Schroeder, 2011). The companys website claims a fire reduction of 900 degrees in less than one minute and that the boring is effective against any type material including steel, concrete, brick, stucco, and wood (Schroeder, 2011). The United Stated Air Force (USAF) conducted extensive testing on PyroLance to characterize the piercing and fire extinguishing capabilities of the system (Schroeder, 2011). Their testing was conducted in accordance with the NFPA 412 Standard for Evaluating Aircraft rescue and Fire-fighting Foam Equipment, Section 6.3.2 (3) (Schroeder, 2011). They evaluated flow rate, foam quality (not discussed here), throw distance, maximum piercing distance between two composite plates, multiple panel piercing ability, and ability to extinguish hidden fires between two panels (Schroeder, 2011). The finding of this testing concluded that this system is very easy to use to pierce an aircraft and apply water or foam to a fire (Schroeder, 2011). Throw tests were determined by placing a series of small fires at various distances and the then measuring to the furthest extinguished fire pan (Schroeder, 2011). The results indicated that the system was effective up to thirty-five and a half feet (Schroeder, 2011). Maximum piercing distance was completed by increasing the separation distance between two panels until they both could not be penetrated (Schroeder, 2011). This test concluded that the system could be used to pierce two aircraft panels separated up to eight feet (Schroeder, 2011). Multiple panel piercing ability was tested by organizing multiple panels at twelve inch intervals and seeing how many/how far the system could penetrate (Schroeder, 2011). This multiple panel piercing test concluded that the system is capable of penetrating five . 153 in thick aircraft panels separated by twelve inches in between (Schroeder, 2011). Ability to extinguish hidden fires between two panels was completed by following the Federal Aviation Association Aircraft Cargo Compartment Minimum Performance Standards for containerized fires (Schroeder, 2011). This test utilized an LD-3 container, eight thermo couples to monitor temperature and empty cardboard boxes stacked inside (Schroeder, 2011). There were also two twelve inch by three inch slots cut into the sides for ventilation (Schroeder, 2011). Two tests were conducted and the internal temperature was reduced to below 110-120 degrees Fahrenheit but the fire did continue to smolder and was not completely extinguished (Schroeder, 2011). This study concluded that the USAF should continue with additional studies to investigate effectiveness of the system to extinguish compartment fires using water, water foam and heat absorbing gels (Schroeder, 2011). The results of this test were primar ily designed to study the piercing ability and not designed for its firefighting success (Schroeder, 2011). There were also a number of recommendations made to help improve the system (Schroeder, 2011). Thos recommendations are: minimum flow rate of the system be at least 10 gallons per minute, the overall weight of the lance needed to be lowered due to the high firefighter fatigue sustained while using the system, the shoulder support should be modified to avoid conflict with the self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), install a power switch on the lance, install and alternator for automatic battery recharging, and lastly resolve the issue with aggregate mixing with water when not actuated (Schroeder, 2011). This study indicates that although the PyroLance system may not be ideal for all situations, it is an excellent tool that can advance the available options to the firefighter. It also supports continued research be conducted for this system to be further perfected. A number of high profile organizations have already added this tool to their firefighting capabilities including the USAF, United States Navy, Dallas-Fort Worth Airport, and many municipalities across the United States. It is extremely popular in other countries including Canada, United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Dubai, and is growing its fan base through exhibits and demonstrations at popular events. The advancement of misting technology has been continual since its inception and has increased with a better scientific understanding of how the technology works. Water misting is a viable alternative to traditional sprinkler systems and in areas where water damage from traditional systems is of concern. Currently, misting systems are designed for both solid fuel and liquid fuel fires and are continuing to challenge other portions of the fire protection market. The PyroLance is a great example of the versatility of this technology opening new markets and challenging traditional views. It is a fire fighters tool that should not be overlooked in the quest for saving lives and preventing injury. Does your municipality have this tool in their arsenal?